Your sanitation area should be located downhill from any usable water source. It should also be a few hundred feet from any river, stream, or lake. It also helps to have your waste area downwind from your living area but not so far from your camp that the distance discourages people from using it.
Making an Emergency Toilet:
If you have a medium sized plastic bucket (5-6 gallon), lined with a heavy-duty toilet bag, you can have a decent emergency toilet. A plastic toilet seat can be purchased to fit on the bucket for a more comfortable seat. If you don't have an extra plastic bucket, you can make a latrine by digging a long trench, approximately one foot wide and 12-18 inches deep and cover it up as you use it. When you dig your latrine too deep, it can retard the bacterial breakdown process. Digging a longer latrine is appropriate for large groups camping in one spot for a long period.
In order to make your latrine more comfortable, you can make a seat by laying logs across the hole, leaving an area open for you to use. After use, cover the waste with small amounts of dirt to decrease the odor. A covered toilet reduces more of the odor than an open one so make a toilet cover with wood or a large leaf.
Disposing of Waste
If you are out camping, make sure you are aware of regulations that may require that you pack out all solid waste. This practice may be especially common at high-use rivers.
If you cannot dispose of refuse properly, you should always bury biodegradable garbage and human waste to avoid the spread of disease by rats and insects. Dig a pit 12-18 inches deep and at least 50 feet but preferably 200 plus feet downhill and away from any well, spring, or water supply. Fill the pit with the refuse and cover with dirt.