Shelf Life

The question is regularly asked, "What is the shelf life of my food storage?"

It is important to first identify what is meant by food storage and shelf life.

Food storage that is intended to be held long-term is generally considered to be low moisture food packed in either #10 cans or in metalized bags placed within large buckets.

Shelf life can be defined in the following two ways:
Best if used by shelf life - Length of time food retains most of its original taste and nutrition.
Life sustaining shelf life - Length of time food preserves life, without becoming inedible.

There can be a wide time gap between these two definitions of shelf life. For example, most foods available in the grocery store that are dated have a best if used by date that ranges from a few weeks to a few years. On the other hand, scientific studies have determined that when properly stored, powdered milk has a life sustaining shelf life of 20 years. That is, the stored powdered milk may not taste as good as fresh powdered milk, but it retains some nutritional value and is still edible.

Secondly, it's important to understand food constituents. Food is composed of the following:

  • Calories:     A unit of measurement of energy derived from fats, carbohydrates and protein.
  • Fats:     A wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water.
  • Carbohydrates:     Simple sugars as well as larger molecules including starch and dietary fiber.
  • Proteins:     Large organic compounds that are essential to living organisms.
  • Vitamins:     A nutrient required for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism.
  • Minerals:     The chemical elements required by living organisms, other than carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen.

Minerals and carbohydrates do not change much during storage. But proteins can denature and deteriorate in quality. Fats can acquire off odors and off flavors known as rancidity. Vitamins are susceptible to destruction by heat, light, and oxidation. Importantly, even if some components deteriorate, the fat, carbohydrates and proteins still contribute calories. To prevent starvation, the most important component is calories.



Freeze Dried Food Shelf Life

Freeze dried food is excellent for long-term food storage. Mountain House® has tested some of their freeze dried foods and the results were excellent! Because of this research, they have a best if used by shelf life of 25 years. As an added benefit, freeze-drying fruits, vegetables, and meats helps maintain the foods' original shape, color, and taste.

Freeze Dried Blueberries, Strawberries, and Apples up to 25+ years* or more
Freeze Dried Broccoli, Green Peppers, and Potatoes up to 25+ years* or more
Mountain House Freeze Dried Chicken Stew, Vegetable Stew with Beef, and Chili Macaroni up to 25+ years* or more
*Stored in Ideal Conditions


Dehydrated Food Shelf Life

Recent scientific studies have shown that dehydrated food stored properly can last for a much longer period of time than previously thought. This research determined the life sustaining shelf life to be approximately 30 years.

Wheat, White Rice, and Corn up to 30+ years* or more
Pinto Beans, Apple Slices, Macaroni up to 30+ years* or more
Rolled Oats, and Potato Flakes up to 30+ years* or more
Powdered Milk up to 20+ years* or more
*Stored in Ideal Conditions


Shelf life is extremely dependent on the following storage conditions:

Storage Conditions
  • Oxygen:     The oxygen in air can have deteriorative effects on fats, food colors, vitamins, flavors, and other food constituents. It can cause conditions that will enhance the growth of microorganisms.
  • Moisture:     Excessive moisture can result in product deterioration and spoilage by creating an environment in which microorganisms may grow and chemical reactions can take place.
  • Light:     The exposure of foods to light can result in the deterioration of specific food constituents, such as fats, proteins, and vitamins, resulting in discoloration, off-flavors, and vitamin loss.
  • Temperature:     Excessive temperature is damaging to food storage. With increased temperature, proteins breakdown and some vitamins will be destroyed. The color, flavor and odor of some products may also be affected. To enhance shelf life, store food at room temperature or below; never store food in an attic or garage.


Conclusion

Emergency Essentials has taken every effort to pack quality Provident Pantry dehydrated and freeze-dried foods in #10 cans and Super-pail buckets, all with most of the oxygen removed. It is important for you to keep food stored at as cool and steady a temperature as possible (below 75 degrees but not freezing). This is the best and most important thing individuals can do to keep their long term food viable. If done, your storage could last 20-30+ years, depending on the product, storage conditions, and definition of "shelf life."